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Is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) a risk factor to development of dental caries and molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in children?
Arthur Musakulu Kemoli1, Immaculate Opondo2, Gladys Opinya3
1PhD, University of Nairobi, Associate Professor (Pediatric Dentistry), Department of Paediatric Dentistry & Orthodontics Department, School of Dental Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya.
2MDS, Consultant Pediatric Dentist, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital, Kisumu, Kenya.
3PhD, Professor (Pediatric Dentistry), Department of Pediatric Dentistry & Orthodontics Department, School of Dental Sciences, Nairobi, Kenya.

Article ID: 100005D01AK2015
doi:10.5348/D01-2015-5-CS-3

Address correspondence to:
Arthur Musakulu Kemoli
P.O. Box 34848,00100 Nairobi
Kenya
Phone: +254 722 436 481

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How to cite this article:
Kemoli AM, Opondo I, Opinya G. Is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) a risk factor to development of dental caries and molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in children? Edorium J Dent 2015;2:15–20.


Abstract
Introduction: HIV-positive children are susceptible to various infections, and they are often placed on long-term medications to control and/or prevent these infections. It is possible that the ingestion of these medications by the children could result in some form of dental conditions, like dental caries that possibly results from the intake of sugar-containing medications and poor oral hygiene, and or molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) ensuing from the febrile conditions, ingestion of certain medications and/or other chemicals at the time the dentition is developing.
Case Series: Two cases of HIV-positive children have been described in this paper, both of which suffered from severe dental caries and MIH. The treatment included extractions and extensive dental restorative procedures to improve their masticatory function and aesthetics.
Conclusion: HIV-positive children may be at a greater risk of developing dental caries and MIH.

Keywords: Caries, Children, HIV-positive, Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH)


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Author Contributions:
Arthur M. Kemoli – Conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting the article, Critical revision of the article, Final approval of the version to be published
Immaculate Opondo – Acquisition of data, Critical revision of the article, Final approval of the version to be published
Gladys Opinya – Acquisition of data, Drafting the article, Final approval of the version to be published
Guarantor of submission
The corresponding author is the guarantor of submission.
Source of support
None
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
Copyright
© 2015 Arthur M. Kemoli et al. This article is distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author(s) and original publisher are properly credited. Please see the copyright policy on the journal website for more information.



About The Authors

Arthur M. Kemoli is The Chairman at The Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. He earned the undergraduate degree BDS from School Of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya and postgraduate degree MSC (Paediatric Dentistry) from Department of Cariology, Endodontology and Paedodontology, ACTA, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. He holds a PhD Degree in Paedodontology from the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. He has published 23 research papers in national and international academic journals, contributed chapters to two books and authored two books. His research interests include new approaches to the management of dental caries and dental developmental issues. He intends to pursue research in the two areas with a possibility of a Postdoc) in future.



Immaculate Opondois a Paedodontist at Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referal Hospital, Kisumu City, Kenya. She earned the undergraduate degree BDS from University of Nairobi, Kenya and postgraduate degree MDS-Paediatric Denstistry from University of Nairobi, Kenya. She has published no research papers in national and international academic journals and authored no books. Her research interests include, Oral Health Related Quality of life, Dental caries and issues affecting the Special child. She intends to pursue PhD in future.



Gladys Opinya Professor of Paediatric Dentistry . Department of Paediatric Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences. College of Health Sciences . University of Nairobi, Kenya. She earned the Bachelor of Dental Surgery degree at the University of Nairobi Kenya, and postgraduate diploma and degree form CAGS and an MSc Pedontontics Department of Paediatric Dentistry at the Henry Goldman School of Graduate Dentistry, Boston University, United States America University. She is a holder of a PhD in Dental Surgery of the University of Nairobi. She has published over twenty research papers in national and international academic journals. Her research interests include fluoride , nutrition in children and infants, early chihood caries. He/she intends to pursue resease on fluoride , nutrion and early childhood caries in future for academic interest and to influence local national policy.




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